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Wednesday, September 25

  1. page Elizabeth Anscombe’s Moral Absolutism edited ... ^ See page 84, Teichmann, R. (2008). ^ See page 84, Teichmann, R. (2008). ^ See page 90, Te…
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    ^ See page 84, Teichmann, R. (2008).
    ^ See page 84, Teichmann, R. (2008).
    ^ See page 90, Teichmann, R. (2008). </ ref>
    Anscombe’s second thesis is related to Kant’s legalistic conception of morality or motive of duty. Legalistic conception of morality is the idea that duty is created by rules or laws and motivation by duty consists of bare respect for lawfulness. <ref> ^ Standard Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Immanuel Kant. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/ </ref > Anscombe believed that “moral obligation and moral duty…and of what is morally right and wrong, and of the moral sense of ‘ought’, ought to be jettisoned…because they are survivals from an earlier conception of ethics which no longer…survives.” <ref>^
    See page
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    (2005).
    ^ Standard Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Immanuel Kant. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 fromhttp://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/ </ ref> Anscombe believed that “moral obligation and moral duty…and of what is morally right and wrong, and of the moral sense of ‘ought’, ought to be jettisoned…because they are survivals from an earlier conception of ethics which no longer…survives.”<ref>^ See page
    ^ Geach, M. & Gormally, L.. (2011).From Plato to Wittgenstein: Essays by G.E.M. Anscombe. Charlottesville: Imprint Academic.
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Monday, September 23

  1. page Golden Rule edited Golden Rule ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ The golden rule, also referred to…
    Golden Rule
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    The golden rule, also referred to as the ethic of reciprocity, is an ethical principle which is promoted by various religions as a way of acting ethically. One of the most famous versions comes from Christianity, its popularized form is: "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you". Versions of the golden rule are also expressed in Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam, and are implicit in the practices of other faiths. The rule can also be practiced without religious intent since it does not mention God and is not identified with the scriptures or doctrines of any one religion.¹
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  2. page Golden Rule edited {Bruce-O'Connell golden rule edit Sept 2013 v post-1-1.docx} Golden Rule ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­…
    {Bruce-O'Connell golden rule edit Sept 2013 v post-1-1.docx}
    Golden Rule
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    ahttp://www.scarboromissions.ca/Golden_rule/index.php
    b Wattles,bWattles, J. (2001).
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    pp. 106-129.
    c Wattles,

    cWattles,
    J. (1996).
    ...
    University Press
    d Penttila,

    dPenttila,
    N. (2007,
    ...
    from http://dana.org/news/features/detail.aspx?id=10358
    e Zywicki,

    eZywicki,
    T. J.
    ...
    from http://www.cooperationcommons.com/node/356
    f Cosmides,

    fCosmides,
    L. &
    gCrain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136.
    h Waluchow,hWaluchow, W.J. (2003).
    ...
    Broadview Press.
    i Waluchow,

    iWaluchow,
    W.J. (2003).
    ...
    Broadview Press.
    j Anonson,

    jAnonson,
    W. A.
    ...
    Education, Inc.
    k Allessandra,

    kAllessandra,
    T. (n.d.).
    lElliott, H. (1999). The Limits of the Golden Rule. Population and Environment A Journal of interdisciplinary studies 20(6). Retrieved from http://download.springer.com.www.msvu.ca:2048/static/pdf/789/art%253A10.1023%252FA%253A1023322317785.pdf?auth66=1379975374_99a98f617c6755dd217fe7ffe99b49ab&ext=.pdf
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Sunday, September 22

  1. page Elizabeth Anscombe’s Moral Absolutism edited ... Elizabeth Anscombe & Moral Absolutism Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret (G.E.M) Anscombe( 1919–…
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    Elizabeth Anscombe & Moral Absolutism
    Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret (G.E.M) Anscombe( 1919–2001), better known as Elizabeth Anscombe was a British analytic philosopher who was considered to be on the most influential of the 20th century. She is considered by many to be “a bold and original thinker” who wrote on a wide variety of topics including ethics, practical reason, language and thought, just to name a few.
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    intellectual virtue…”. Anscombe
    Anscombe
    is known
    In Anscombe’s famous essay of 1958, Modern Moral Philosophy she discusses three main theories. These theses are formed by her critique of three dominant and influential trends of thought, Hume’s concept of fact/value distinction, Kant’s legalistic conception of morality and consequentialism.
    ...
    of ethical theory.]theory.
    Anscombe’s second thesis is related to Kant’s legalistic conception of morality or motive of duty. Legalistic conception of morality is the idea that duty is created by rules or laws and motivation by duty consists of bare respect for lawfulness.
    Anscombe’s final theory is on consequentialism. Anscombe key issue is with the concept of theDoctrine of Double Effect, which states that it is acceptable to cause harm if it is side effect of a good result. Anscombe contests that there is a difference between intended effects of foreseen ones. She argues that the defining error of consequentialism is denial of any difference.
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    7:30 pm
  2. page Codes of Ethics edited ... their code in 1952 in reaction ... that a new code of ... the profession. () ( ) As…
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    their code in 1952 in reaction
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    that a new code of
    ...
    the profession. ()( )
    As codes are developed by associations rather than by industry standard, the codes vary. Within some associations, ethical importance is placed on the practitioner's actions while in others the emphasis is placed on the actions of the organization ( ). CPRS and IABC both have published Codes of Ethics that emphasize practitioners’ actions and regulate practice through membership-enforced regulations. This has limited effectiveness, as membership is elective. While members can lose membership to a particular association, they still retain their ability to practice public relations as the code is difficult to enforce.
    One of the reasons Public Relations has no standardized code of ethics can be attributed to the lack of standardization of the definition of public relations itself ( ). This leaves public relations professional organizations to not only define the structures of ethics, but the structures of the profession as well.
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    These items use the terms “highest professional standards”, “deal fairly and honestly”, “practice the highest standard of honesty, accuracy, integrity, and truth” and “deal fairly with”. They are presented as universal statements but each is open to interpretation. What represents highest professional standards is relative to the individual practitioner and can vary due to education, experience, etc. What is viewed as ‘fair and honest’ in one culture may be viewed as neither fair or honest in another culture. In other words, the interpretation is relative to the culture, or moral relativist ethics.
    Commonalities in Codes of Ethics
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    do so. ()( )
    If the company’s code of ethics less of a legal document and more of a description their corporate values and establishment of a code of behaviour for its employees, ironically, it would be unethical to copy another company’s code of ethics. A 2009 study in commonalities on codes of ethics found that more than half our sample of publicly traded companies has codes of ethics correlations, i.e. the companies’ codes of ethics had similarities or they were the same.
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    successful companies. ()( )
    It is better to have a code of conduct that goes beyond the minimal legal requirement or the broad “boilerplate” codes. If the code is too broad, it risks being too generic in nature and will not speak to a specific company.
    Whether there are circumstances under which companies may copy codes of ethics is up for debate. More than likely, a company is attempting to be ethical and is copying a code in order be so. Is that ethical? Perhaps, the bigger ethical issue is less related to the ethics of plagiarism and more so to the genuine efforts to increase ethical behavior.
    Public Affairs Influence on Codes of Ethics
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    affairs executives. ()( )
    In the
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    or law.” ()( )
    Fitzpatrick, K. (June 01, 2002). Evolving Standards in Public Relations: A Historical Examination of PRSA's Codes of Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 17, 2, 89-110.
    Bowen. S.A. (2007). Ethics in Public Relations. Retrieved October 20, 2012 http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/ethics-and-public-relations/
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  3. page Codes of Ethics edited In In general, a ... of ethics. As The Public Relations Society of America members, some of…

    In
    In general, a
    ...
    of ethics. AsThe Public Relations Society of America members, some of whom wanted no code at all, developed their code in reaction to perceptions of misbehaviour on the part of public relations practitioners. It was the hope that a new code of ethics would bring more credibility to the profession. ()
    As
    codes are
    ...
    practice public relations.relations as the code is difficult to enforce.
    One of the reasons Public Relations has no standardized code of ethics can be attributed to the lack of standardization of the definition of public relations itself ( ). This leaves public relations professional organizations to not only define the structures of ethics, but the structures of the profession as well.
    Two opposing positions from which Codes of Ethics can be viewed are universalism and cultural relativism ( ). Universalists asserts that even though we have cultural differences, we all fundamentally hold the same baseline ethical values. Cultural relativists state that as everything is culturally based including ethics, universal ethics do not exist ( ). Ethical standards constructed by associations appear to be attempts to guide ethical behaviour universally. However, this makes the assumption that all practitioners hold the same moral values and opinions ( ). In fact, the codes of ethics are being enacted in a world that interprets behaviour contextually. The universal statements in the codes of ethics are open to interpretation by members of the profession.
    ...
    These items use the terms “highest professional standards”, “deal fairly and honestly”, “practice the highest standard of honesty, accuracy, integrity, and truth” and “deal fairly with”. They are presented as universal statements but each is open to interpretation. What represents highest professional standards is relative to the individual practitioner and can vary due to education, experience, etc. What is viewed as ‘fair and honest’ in one culture may be viewed as neither fair or honest in another culture. In other words, the interpretation is relative to the culture, or moral relativist ethics.
    Commonalities in Codes of Ethics
    ...
    do so. ()
    If the company’s code of ethics less of a legal document and more of a description their corporate values and establishment of a code of behaviour for its employees, ironically, it would be unethical to copy another company’s code of ethics. A 2009 study in commonalities on codes of ethics found that more than half our sample of publicly traded companies has codes of ethics correlations, i.e. the companies’ codes of ethics had similarities or they were the same.
    ...
    successful companies. ()
    It is better to have a code of conduct that goes beyond the minimal legal requirement or the broad “boilerplate” codes. If the code is too broad, it risks being too generic in nature and will not speak to a specific company.
    Whether there are circumstances under which companies may copy codes of ethics is up for debate. More than likely, a company is attempting to be ethical and is copying a code in order be so. Is that ethical? Perhaps, the bigger ethical issue is less related to the ethics of plagiarism and more so to the genuine efforts to increase ethical behavior.
    Public Affairs Influence on Codes of Ethics
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    affairs executives.
    In
    ()
    In
    the same
    ...
    or law.” ()
    Fitzpatrick, K. (June 01, 2002). Evolving Standards in Public Relations: A Historical Examination of PRSA's Codes of Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 17, 2, 89-110.

    Bowen. S.A. (2007). Ethics in Public Relations. Retrieved October 20, 2012 http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/ethics-and-public-relations/
    Gaither, K., and Curtin, P. (2007), International Public Relations: Negotiating Culture, Identity, and Power. Sage Publications, California.
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  4. page Cultural Relativism edited ... History {cultural relativism cartoon.png} ... specific social context. context . The i…
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    History
    {cultural relativism cartoon.png}
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    specific social context.context . The idiom
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    relates to observation.observation . The principle
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    by his students.students . From an
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    knowledge and observation.observation .
    For example,
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    and an infanticide.infanticide . As a
    Ethical Application & Criticism
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    without significant criticism.criticism . The core
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    is inherently flawed,flawed , resulting in
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    with semantic ambiguities.ambiguities .
    Applied in
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    our own culture.culture . Modifying our
    Cultural relativism is a normative ethical position, rather than a prescriptive one. That is to say, rather than prescribing what ought to be done in a specific situation, it merely describes how people behave in that situation, as dictated by the accepted norms.
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    from moral relativism.relativism . In this
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    the subsequent norms.norms . For example,
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    set of norms.norms .
    As the basis for cultural relativism is the observation that different cultures have different sets of norms and values that govern behaviour in their culture. This is in contrast to universalism that holds the position that moral values are the same for everyone. Cultural relativists consider this to be an ethnocentric view as the universal set of values proposed by
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    set of values.values . Cultural relativism
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    of each other.other .
    {cultural_relativism_in_a_nutshell_by_verixas92-d5jfwtg.jpg}
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    common across cultures.cultures . However, harsher
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    willfully ignorant . .
    What Cultural
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    summarized by Rachels:Rachels :
    There is inherent danger in assuming an absolute rational standard defines our preferences; they are a product of our society.
    Being aware of what produced our preferences, we should keep an open mind to those that differ.
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    7:02 pm

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